Localization and Restaging of Carcinoma Prostate by 68Ga PSMA PET/CT in Patients with Biochemical Recurrence: A Descriptive Study

(RSNA 2018, Mon Nov 26 2018 11:25AM - 11:35AM ROOM Z44) PURPOSE Prostate cancer is the most common solid cancer in men. Following definitive treatment of prostate cancer by radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy, cancer recurrence is heralded by an increase in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which is called biochemical recurrence. We investigate the relationship between prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and detection of suspected cancer recurrence using 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT in patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy. METHOD AND MATERIALS We analyzed retrospective data of 150 men with carcinoma prostate post RP and post radiotherapy with biochemical recurrence from May 2014 to Jan 2018 by 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT We included men with suspected recurrent prostate cancer based on an elevated post treatment PSA level. The data collected analyzed the relationship of the pre-scan PSA level to the probability of a positive scan finding for recurrent prostate cancer. RESULTS Our cohort included 150 men, all had adenocarcinoma of prostate, 126/150 had a previous RP and 24/150 had prior radiotherapy. The mean PSA of the RP group was 4.8 ng/mL and 22.8 ng/mL in the radiotherapy group. In the post RP cohort, the detection rate of 68 Ga-PSMA PET/ CT was 39.3% for PSA 0.2 to <0.5 ng/mL, 45.3% for PSA 0.5 to <1 ng/mL, 88.2% for PSA 1 to <2 ng/mL and 95.5% for PSA ≥2. Lymph node metastasis post RP was identified in 52% of men with suspected disease recurrence. In the post radiotherapy cohort the detection rate was 96.1 % for PSA 2 to 4 ng/mL, 99.2% for PSA 4 to 6 ng/ mL and 100% for PSA ≥6. Local recurrence after radiotherapy was present in 62 % of the cohort and 58 % had lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSION 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT provides a novel imaging modality for the detection of prostate cancer recurrence and metastasis. Suspected PSMA avid metastatic lesions are common and are identified at low post treatment PSA levels, which if detected will help direct appropriate salvage treatments. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION PSMA PET/CT should be considered a routine part of follow-up of treated prostate cancer patients since metastasis may present with low PSA levels leading to delay in addressing relapses.